• Periodontal Diseases: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

    Periodontal diseases, commonly known as gum diseases, are infections that affect the structures around the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. They range from simple gum inflammation to severe disease that can result in major damage to soft tissue and bone.
    Periodontal Diseases


    Early detection of periodontal diseases can lead to more effective treatments. Here are the common signs:

    • Red and Swollen Gums: Gums that bleed easily when you brush or floss.
    • Bad Breath: Persistent bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth.
    • Tender Gums: Discomfort or pain when chewing.
    • Receding Gums: Teeth appearing longer due to gum recession.
    • Loose Teeth: Caused by weakening gum fibers or bone loss.
    • Pus: Between your teeth and gums.
    • Change in Bite: Altered alignment of top and bottom teeth.


    • Plaque Build-Up: The primary cause is the build-up of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria.
    • Tobacco Use: Smoking or chewing tobacco increases the risk.
    • Hormonal Changes: Such as those occurring during pregnancy, menstruation, menopause, and puberty.
    • Illnesses: Diseases such as diabetes, HIV, and cancer can affect gum health.
    • Medications: Some medicines can reduce the flow of saliva, which has a protective effect on the mouth.
    • Poor Oral Hygiene: Not brushing or flossing regularly.


    • Professional Dental Cleaning: The simplest form of treatment, this involves removing plaque and tartar.
    • Scaling and Root Planing: Deep cleaning under anesthesia, where tartar is scraped off the tooth (scaling) and the rough spots on the tooth root are made smooth (planing).
    • Medications: Oral or topical antibiotics can control bacterial infection.
    • Surgical Treatments:
             Flap Surgery: Lifts back gums and removes tartar. Gums are then sutured back in place.
             Bone and Tissue Grafts: This procedure replaces or encourages new growth of bone or gum tissue destroyed by periodontitis.

    Risk Factors for Periodontal Diseases

    While poor oral hygiene is a significant contributor to periodontal diseases, other risk factors can increase the vulnerability of an individual:

    • Genetics: Some people might be genetically predisposed to gum disease. Regular check-ups become even more critical for them.
    • Diet: Consuming a diet high in sugars and carbohydrates can facilitate plaque formation.
    • Age: Research indicates that older individuals have the highest rates of periodontal diseases.
    • Stress: Chronic stress can weaken the immune system, making it harder for the body to fend off infections, including periodontal diseases.

    Complications of Periodontal Diseases

    Periodontal disease doesn’t just affect your oral health:

    • Heart Disease: There’s a noted correlation between periodontal disease and heart disease. While the exact reasons are still under research, inflammation due to periodontal disease might be responsible.
    • Respiratory Issues: Bacteria from the mouth can be inhaled, potentially leading to respiratory diseases like pneumonia.
    • Complications in Diabetes: People with diabetes are more susceptible to infections, including periodontal diseases. Furthermore, severe gum disease can affect blood sugar control.
    • Pregnancy Complications: Gum diseases can increase the risk of premature births or low birth weight.


    Prevention is always better than cure. Here’s how to reduce the risk of periodontal diseases:

    • Brush Twice a Day: Ensure you’re brushing for at least two minutes.
    • Floss Daily: This helps remove plaque and food particles.
    • Regular Dental Check-ups: Visit your dentist or periodontist routinely for cleanings.
    • Avoid Smoking: Smoking is a significant risk factor.


    Understanding periodontal diseases, their symptoms, and causes is crucial for early detection and treatment. By maintaining good oral hygiene and seeking timely medical attention, these conditions can be managed effectively, ensuring a healthy smile for years to come.